History - the Past of Future


 c. Nanotechnology

     Sumio Iijima

  •  In 1991 Sumio Iijima discovered Tubular Buckminster Fullerenes also called Nanotubes

  •  In 2001 many breakthroughs occurred in nanotechnology.  Researchers at IBM develop a method to grow specific nanotubes in formation, and also build first logic gate ('NOT') (basic units of computers) on the surface of a (1.4nm) nanotube.

  • Florian Banhart develops a technique to weld nanotubes together, Hong Kong Scientists discover that nanotubes can superconduct (conduct electricity without resistance) by placing hydrogen atoms on the exterior of the surface.


  • Euhd Shapiro and Yaakov Benenson build the first Biological Processing Unit with nanotubules.

  • In 2002, J. Jacobson, J. Schwartz, and S. Zhang develop a process by which DNA molecules can be selectively manipulated by radio waves.



(Osteoprosthetic growth)

Present Technology


Future Technology