A History of Heart Disease Treatment

  • The death rate related to atherosclerosis increases dramatically from that of previous centuries. However, the causes of the condition are not well understood.


  • The Framingham Heart Study, spanning 1948 to 1951, is initiated. This observational study is the first step toward understanding atherosclerosis. Involving 1,980 male and 2,421 female volunteers, it identifies several factors that put a person at risk for atherosclerosis: among them, high levels of cholesterol.


  • John Gofman and his associates identify low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Additionally, in an observational study, Gofman finds that 101 out of 104 men who developed atherosclerosis have elevated levels of LDL in the body as well as low levels of HDL.


  • Petar Alaupovic discovers that all lipoproteins contain distributions and complexes of apolipoproteins, which characterize the structure and function of the lipoprotein.


  • 14 apolipoproteins are identified, including apoA-1 and apoB-100, which are chief components of HDL and LDL respectively.


  • Synthetic HDL (sHDL) is created by combining apoA-1 with lipid vesicles, offering a solution for patients with low levels of HDL. The sHDL functions identically to naturally produced HDL, which takes excess cholesterol to the liver to be broken down. However, sHDL is expensive, inefficient, and difficult to synthesize.


  • HEARTt becomes commercially available as a safe and effective treatment for atherosclerosis. Utilizing sHDL technology to provide non-invasive, convenient, and cost-effective protection, HEARTt revolutionizes atherosclerosis treatment, improving the lives of the millions of people affected by the condition each year.


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