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Technological History:




Thomas Graham noticed that crystalloids were able to diffuse through vegetable parchment coated with aluminum.




Abel, Rowntree, and Turner developed a process that will be known as hemodialysis. This worked by passing animal blood from an arterial cannula (metal tube inserted into the body) and returning the blood through another cannula.




George Haas performs the first successful human dialysis procedure, which lasted for fifteen minutes with no complications.




The first practical and effective human hemodialysis machine was developed by W.J. Kolff and H. Berk.




Kolff and Watschinger developed the "twin coil" artificial kidney, a modification of an earlier pressure cooker dialysis machine.




Dialysis machines gained the attention of the general public and were being successfully used in homes across the nation.




Hemofiltration began to be incorporated into dialysis machines in order to increase the success rate.