1st Slide - Image of dissolvable
suture mold.

2nd Slide - Image of KOT
kidney in the earlier stages of

3rd Slide - Image of KOT
kidney in later stages of
development (mold has started
to disintegrate).

4th Slide - Image of final KOT
kidney, fully formed, with renal
artery, renal vein, and ureter

(All pictures shown represent a
cross section of the KOT

Steps to Create KOT:

1.) Design a biodegradable plastic mold for the kidney
                      - will be made from layers of dissolvable suture(stitches) polymers
                      - made with high elasticity(so it will stretch)
                      - made with high-tension(so it will sustain pressure)
                      - slow degradation rate(so it will have time for the tissues to develop)
                      - mold will be separated into 5 sections of different sizes for each tissue
                                             - 5 layers:
                                                              -renal capsule
                                                              -outer cortex
                                                              -inner cortex
                                                              -collecting system that drains into the ureter

2.) Graft the tissues & membranes
                     - same process as cultured skin grafts
                                    - coat mold in layer of denatured collagen(create grid pattern for cells)
                                    - perform surgery to remove healthy samples of tissue
                                    - seed healthy tissue, stem cells, & growth factors onto single layer of biodegradable material
                                    - each layer grown apart until individual structures form
                                    - layers placed in mold in correct order
                                    - grow additional nephrons
                                    - layers and nephrons will be combined to form a complete kidney
                                    - kidney will take three to four months to fully develop

3.) Sustain kidney in a growth medium
                    - use same medium that is used to sustain skin grafts
                    - add different growth factors to medium

4.) Transplantation of kidney into patient
                          - use current kidney transplant procedure
                                        - surgeon will make an incision on either side of the abdomen
                                        - kidney will be attached to assorted blood vessels (the iliac artery and vein)
                                        - connect the ureter to the bladder
                                        - close incision and transport patient to the intensive care unit

Description of:
-1st step
-2nd step
-3rd step
-4th step