All over the globe, industrialization has rendered
useless numerous sites by contaminating soil,
sediment and water resources with toxic metals and
metalloids. Primary sources of such contamination,
aerial deposition from the burning of fossil fuels
and mining and smelting activities, have
created biologically barren sites called brown-
fields. These contaminants not only destroy
life in the immediate areas but by finding
their way into water sources can reach all
branches of the ecosystem, including humans. The
situation has become so desperate that the
government has required the remediation and
stabilization of such sites by law. Over the past few
years, scientists have found many applications of
biotechnology that address this concern. One such
promising solution that has lately gained much
attention from both academia and industry is